Results from a study which appeared in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science on the 7th of April 2014 reveal feedback from a double-blind trial in which almost 400 human subjects received dextroamphetamine (adderall) and reported on their experience. The test subjects had their DNA sequence and contrasted against genes which are known to be related to higher schizophrenia or ADHD incidence. Those found to have such genes were reportedly prone to a more euphoric reaction to the dextroamphetamine, compared to those without the genes. So if one get's high from adderall there is a big chanse of schizophrenia genes.
The study’s creator, Abraham Palmer, who works as a geneticist at the University of Chicago gave further information to Popular Science. Those who most enjoy amphetamines, getting real "high" from adderall, he said, have lower odds of suffering from those conditions.
The study’s findings are suggestive of the part dopamine plays in schizophrenia and ADHD. Amphetamine, the active ingredient in Adderall, assists in dopamine release into the neuronal gaps, known as synapse. This allows easier transmission of dopamine which heightens its feel-good effect. It is believed that in cases of schizophrenia, the dopamine signaling mechanism may be hyperactive whereas the opposite holds true in ADHD cases. One might simplify it as follows: schizophrenia results from excess dopamine and ADHD (is when you get high) from a dearth of dopamine.
However much more complex the real causes of these conditions might be, there is some reason to suspect they lie at opposite sides of some spectrum. The study reveals that the situation is more complicated than previously thought, according to Dr. Palmer.
Dr. Wade Berrettini, a psychiatric professor from the school of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, commented that the linkage between the conditions and the getting high of adderall or other amphetamines was “surprising.” He said that it strongly suggests that genes with a predisposition to euphoria are less disposed to schizophrenia. He also said that genes which respond to amphetamine suggest a lower chance of contributing to ADHD, whereas the opposite was suspected.
The study’s methodology was designed to screen out those with a taste for amphetamines as well as other substance-abusers or mentally unhealthy people.